Electrical Engineering and Information & Communication Technolog
MILITARY INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), The National University of Malaysia (@Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) (UKM)
43600 UKM-Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
The recent years have witnessed the remarkable progress in hybrid organic–inorganic halide perovskites solar cells (PSCs) with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) evolving from 3.8% in 2009 to over 22% in 2017, and most recently in May 2018, a PCE of 23.25% has been announced by Professor Gräetzel in International Conference on hybrid and organic photovoltaics. Their facile fabrication process, panchromatic absorption, longer charge carriers diffusion length, excellent charge carriers’ mobility and low cost make them attractive candidate of new class of solar cells. However, the instabilities associated with the PSCs hinder their widespread commercialization to translate the lab scale progress towards the large scale industrial production. While, tremendous achievements in the PCEs of PSCs has been achieved, above 22% values only represent the initial performance of the organic semiconductors (OSCs) – how the performance of the device degrades with time is of paramount importance. The stacked architecture of the PSCs consisting of organic-inorganic constituents makes it susceptible to several degradation factors affecting every layer of PSCs. Although, the prime concern is to address the instability of the perovskite layer affected by the intrinsic and extrinsic degradation factors; however, it is important to explore the other layers (i.e. hole/electron transport layer) and interfaces within the devices. In this context, rational hole/electron transport material design and engineering are one of the highly regarded approaches to improve the device efficiency and stability.